Halogen Lighting – The Technology Behind It


Tungsten Halogen lamps were invented in 1958 by the engineers of General Electric. Producing a very strong, white light they are now used in many applications from automotive to retail display lighting. To understand their many advantages and consequent popularity we will compare the way in which 'normal' incandescent lamps work.

Incandescent Lamps

A normal incandescent lamp enterprises a tungsten filament inside a glass envelope filled with inert gas such as argon or nitrogen. An electric current heats up the filament to about 3000 degrees making it a thermal radiator. At this temperature about 5-10% of the electrical input is converted to visible light and about 90% to heat, which is not particularly efficient!

During this process the filament vaporises and tungsten atoms stream towards and deposit on the cooler glass walls of the lamp envelope, which, over time becomes black. You will probably have noticed this in some of your older household lamps.

This is bad news on two fronts: The filament is constantly degrading, and that limits the life of the bulb. In normal use incandescent lamps typically last only 750 to 1,000 hours. The blackening of the glass also impairs the performance of the lamp for the deposited Tungsten material absorbs light. To decelerate this blackening conventional incandescent lamps have a 'big' envelope with a wide surface area to spread the deposited tungsten.

The Halogen Breakthrough

The engineers of GE discovered that when Halogen gas was added to the envelope tungsten atoms did not collect on the walls . The Halogen atoms attach themselves to the vaporised tungsten atoms and transport them back to the filament where they are reused . The Halogen atoms then go back out into the atmosphere atmosphere and search for more vaporized Tungsten atoms. This continuous process is known as the 'Halogen Cycle', and it signaled a breakthrough in lamp technology and design.

  1. Since the tungsten filament is continuously 're-fed' with atoms it may be operated at much higher temperatures . This results in a much brighter, whiter light. Halogen lamps therefor have a better 'light efficiency'. They produce about 20% more light per watt than an incandescent lamp.
  2. The whiter light that halogen lamps produce give a 'better color rendering' , as they identify more colors of the visible spectrum. Their use initially became widespread in retail display lighting for this reason.
  3. Because the filament is continuously re-fed with tungsten it lasts much longer . Halogen lamps are now being produced with an expected life of over 4000 hours.
  4. They do not suffer from blackening meaning the lamp performances consistently through its life.
  5. Since blackening does not occur, halogen lamps have no need for a big envelope, and are so much more compact . The envelope of a G4 12v 20w capsule, for example, is just over 1cm long


These advantages have made halogen lamps the number one choice of architects, lighting designers, retailers and home owners. Continual research and development by the major lamp manufacturers is leading to …

Why Computer Hardware Is Important

In this day and age, it is hard to deny the influence of technology in our lives. We live in an era where pretty much is automated and computerized. And amidst all the technological advancement that humankind has achieved, one important device has been created that will only sure to become more relevant to our lives as technology progresses, the computer. No one can deny that computers are now an essential part of our lives, the same way a cell phone and television does. It is safe to say that in this day and age, having no computer would be an inconvenience. Which is why it is important that we know the how our computer works so that we would be aware of the things that we should do in case it stops working. The hardware of the computer is considered to be the most important because without it, it will simply not work.

Simply put if you know how to handle the hardware of a computer and know each of their function for the unit, then you can easily determine what the problem is in case the unit stops functioning. In order to be familiar with basic computer troubleshooting, then you also need to be familiar with computer hardware. A good example of this is the memory of the computer (RAM). All programs and applications that are ran in a computer needs memory. Without RAM it simply won’t function. Aside from that, even if you have a RAM but it does have the specifications to keep up with the programs that are being ran, then the operation would be slowed down to a crawl. So when it comes to computer hardware, you have to make sure that it is not obsolete, so you need to upgrade depending on what sort of program that you are usually using.

When handling computer hardware, you have to keep in mind some safety measures so you can manipulate the unit safely. Before opening any computer cases, you have to make sure that the unit is unplugged or you might risk electrocution or shocks. While checking your hardware components, always check for damaged parts because that is most likely the one that is causing problems. When inserting components and parts, you have to remember that if it doesn’t fit, then most likely you are inserting it on the wrong slot. If it does not fit, then do not force it or you will risk breaking the component. Before touching any parts inside the unit, make sure that you discharge yourself first by through a grounded metal object or you can use an anti-static wrist strap or mat which is sold in stores for cheap.

By knowing and analyzing every computer hardware part you will know about its importance and if it ever breaks down then you can perform the proper troubleshooting steps. Every hardware component is important for the computer’s operation. The performance of your computer largely depends on how good your hardware is, …